The permanent exhibition is divided into separate themed displays based on the organisation of the Museum’s departments.
The section devoted to the transformation of energy demonstrates the historic development of inventions and solutions for converting less valuable forms of energy into more useful forms to humans. Of particular interest are the collections of steam engines, internal combustion motors, and the collection of machine models under the title The Motive Power of Fire.
The section on traffic vehicles offers a chronological journey through the development of water, land, and air transportation. The display predominantly features original items, including the pocket-size submarine Mališan CB-20 (The Little One) from 1943, airplanes from the first half of the 20th century (Bücker Jungmann, Trojka, DAR-9, Aero-3, Thunderbolt, hydro plane Fizir FNH designed by Croatian constructor Rudolf Fizir), the popular Samoborček (train) locomotive from 1930, a Dubrovnik tram car from 1912, the motor sled constructed by Zagreb mechanic Marko Knez from 1931, and severalold automobiles (the Renault NN from 1926, the Mercedes-Benz S from 1927, and a Hansa from 1939). The tram car M 24 from 1924, parked at the ZET terminal, (Zagreb tram terminal) carries museum visitors around Zagreb every Sunday and is a popular tourist attraction.
Advances and developments in fire fighting, with a special emphasis on Croatia, are illustrated by original items, including hand and motor-powered hoses, horse-drawn fire fighting vehicles, ladders, piping, sprayers, and other fire fighting equipment. The display is accompanied by illustrations and textual materials.
The agricultural exhibits focus on different technical implements that were used for digging and ploughing.
A separate section is dedicated to the Apiary, which shows historic and modern beekeeping methods. Glass beehives with live bees that can leave the premises and live in the outside world via a passage provided for this purpose is a delightful surprise and a unique exhibit.
The astronautics section features models of famous spacecraft, rocket-carriers, and orbit stations that illustrate the early development of astronautics. The greatest attraction is the Planetarium where, with the help of a specially constructed projector, visitors can view the starry sky from the North Pole to the Equator at any time of the night and in any season.
The geology and mining display is centred around the methods that our ancestors used to find ores and minerals. The mining collection takes us through the development of ore exploitation and processing. A special attraction is the 350 m long model mine, built below the Museum, which illustrates the history of mining in Croatia.
A special display titled Geodesy – Cadastre Office is a faithful replica of a land survey office from the early 20th century with all the tools and equipment required for making different types of maps and charts (from pencil to theodolite).
The Demonstration Cabinet of Nikola Tesla has been constructed in the section dedicated to the great personalities of Croatian science and technology. The Cabinet opened in 1976 to commemorate the 120th anniversary of Tesla's birth. It was updated and renovated in 2006 as part of the celebration of the Nikola Tesla Year. The Cabinet offers a range of multimedia materials intended to acquaint visitors with the life and work of Nikola Tesla. The seating area for the presenation accommodates up to 90 visitors. Arranged around the seats are exhibits illustrating Tesla's childhood, schooling, life and work in America, and the genius's medals and other recognition awards. In the Cabinet, experiments are demonstrated using reconstructions of Tesla's most famous inventions, which are based on his original drawings and patent applications. Visitors can observe a rotating magnetic field, Tesla's high frequency transformers, the wireless transfer of electromagnetic oscillations, a remote-controlled ship, Tesla's turbine, etc. Not only do visitors watch the experiments, but they may also take part in them if they wish.
On display in the Museum courtyard are portrait busts of Croatian geniuses of science and technology.